TRIZ Index: 
TRIZ 40 Inventive Principles (according to Salamatov's textbook)
  - Cross references to USIT solution generation methods
Toru Nakagawa (Osaka Gakuin Univ.), Aug. 15, 2002
 [Posted in Japanese on Sept. 18, 2002] 
English Translation:  Toru Nakagawa, Mar. 7, 2003
  [Posted in English on Apr. 3, 2003.] [Withdrawn: Apr. 8, 2003 - Dec. 18, 2012]
Posted again under permissions :  Toru Nakagawa (OGU), Dec. 22,  2012
For going back to Japanese  pages, press  buttons.

Editor's Note (Toru Nakagawa, Sept. 18, 2002; Translated into English on, Mar. 7, 2003)

This document is a list of the 40 Inventive Principles of TRIZ.  This document was comosed during the process of reorganizing TRIZ Solution Generation Methods into those of USIT and is now posted here as a basic document for making links among various methods and documents of TRIZ and USIT.

Original source of the Inventive Principles is:
   "TRIZ: The Right Solution at the Right Time", by Yuri Salamatov, edited by Valeri Souchkov, Insytec, The Netherland, 1999.  (See  ) [Japanese version, translated by Toru Nakagawa and Mitsubishi Research Institute, Nikkei BP, Nov. 2000.]

Note 1.  Cross-references to USIT Solution Generation Methods are shown in a form like: [USIT 1a].  See more detail in the document of "USIT Solution Generation Methods (Extended Version)".

Refer to the list of various TRIZ tools in the parent page.

Editor's Note (Toru Nakagawa, Dec. 19, 2012)

TRIZ Inventive Principles were developed originally by Mr. Genrich Altshuller
     (Ref. G.S. Altshuller: "Creatrivity as an Exact Science!", Gordon & Breach Science Publishing, NewYork, 1984;
             G.S. Altshuller: "To Find an Idea", Nauka, Novosibirsk, 1986 (in Russian). 
They are referred here in the form of Salamatov's textbook which is more commonly available in Japan both in English and in Japanese. 
I am happy to upload this page again under the permissions by Mrs. Larisa Komarcheva & Ms. Yuna Komarcheva and by Dr. Yuri Salamatov.

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TRIZ 40 Inventive Principles (according to Salamatov's textbook)

1.  Segmentation

a.  Divide your object into independent parts.      [USIT  1c]
b.  Divide your object into parts so that some its part can be easily taken away.      [USIT 1c ]
c.  Increase the degree of the object's fragmentation.      [USIT 1c ]

2.  Taking Away

a.  Take away an interfering part of your object.      [USIT 1c ]
b.  If some property of the object is undesirable, find out what part of the object is a carrier of the undesired property and separate it from the object.      [USIT  1c, 2a]

3.  Local Quality

a.  Instead of uniform structure of your project, use non-uniform structure of the object.      [USIT  2d]
b.  Instead of uniform structure of environment, use non-uniform structure of the environment.      [USIT 2d ]
c.  If two functions are to be performed by the same object but this causes problems, divide the object into two parts.       [USIT 3b, 1c, 4a ]
d.  Redesign your object and environment so that each part of the object must be in conditions proper for operation.      [USIT  2c, 4d]

4.  Asymmetry

a.  If your object has symmetrized shape, make it asymmetrical .      [USIT  2b]
b.  If your object is asymmetrical, increase the degree of asymmetry.      [USIT 2b ]

5.  Combining

a.  Merge identical parts or components of your object in space.      [USIT  1d]
b.  Merge identical parts or components of your object in time.      [USIT  1d]

6.  Universality

a.  If you have two objects which deliver different functions, design a new single object that would be capable of delivering both functions.      [USIT  3c, 1d, 4a]

7.  Nesting

a.  Place one object inside another.      [USIT 4b,2d ]
b.  Increase a number of nested objects.      [USIT 1b ]
c.  Make one object dynamically pass through a cavity of another object when necessary.      [USIT 4b ]

8.  Counterweight

a.  Compensate for the weight of your object with merging it with another object that provides lifting force.      [USIT 3d ]
b.  Place your object into environment that provides aerodynamic, hydrodynamic or other lifting force.      [USIT 3d ]

9.  Prior Counteraction

a.  If  your object is subjected to harmful factor(s) of environment, subject it to antipodal action beforehand.  This will compensate with the harmful factor.       [USIT 3f, 4c ]

10.  Prior Action

a. If your object is subjected to harmful factors of environment, create conditions that will prevent the object from harmful factors beforehand.      [USIT  4c]
b.  If your object has to be changed and this is hard to achieve, perform the required change of the object (fully or partially) beforehand.      [USIT 3f, 4c ]

11.  Early Cushioning

a.  If your object is unreliable, create conditions in advance that will prevent the object.      [USIT 4c ]

12.  Equipotentiality

a.  If your object has to be lowered or raised, redesign the object's environment so that the necessity to raise or lower the object ceases.      [USIT 2h, 4b ]

13.  Other Way Round

a.  Instead of actions defined perform opposite action.      [USIT  3d]
b.  Make the movable part of your object fixed or the fixed part movable.      [USIT 2d ]

14.  Spheroidality

a.  Instead of linear parts of the object, use curve parts.      [USIT 2d ]
b.  Use rollers, balls, spirals.      [USIT 2b, 2d, 1e ]
c.  Use rotary motion.     [USIT 3e ]
d.  Use centrifugal forces.      [USIT  3c]

15.  Dynamicity

a.  If your object is immobile, make it movable.      [USIT  2d]
b.  Divide your objects into parts capable of moving relatively each other.      [USIT 1c ]
c.  Increase the degree of free motion.      [USIT 2d ]
d.  Make your object or environment dynamically change in accord with the required conditions at each stage of operation.      [USIT  2e, 4c, 4d]

16.  Partial or Excessive Action

a.  If it is not possible to precisely achieve the required change, or to perform some action, reformulate the problem:  how to make slightly less or slightly more and then achieve the required result.      [USIT 3f, 4a ]

17. Another Dimension

a.  If your object moves along a line, consider movement within two-dimensional space.      [USIT 3e ]
b.  If your object moves in plane, consider movement within three-dimensional space.       [USIT 3e ]
c.  Rearrange objects so that instead of one-storied arrangement a multi-storied arrangement can be achieved.      [USIT  1b, 2b, 4b]
d.  Tilt the object.      [USIT 2d, 3e ]
e.  Use other side of the given area.      [USIT 2d ]

18.  Mechanical Vibrations

a.  Make your object or its part vibrate.      [USIT 3e ]
b.  If the object is in oscillatory motion, increase the frequency of oscillations.      [USIT 3e, 3f ]
c.  Use resonance frequencies.      [USIT 3e, 3f ]
d.  Use ultrasonic frequencies.      [USIT 3d, 3e ]
e.  Use piezoelectric vibrators  instead of mechanical ones.      [USIT  3d, 3e]
f.  Use ultrasonic oscillations in combination with electromagnetic field.      [USIT 3d, 4e ]

19.  Periodic Action

a.  Instead of continuous action use pulse actions.      [USIT 3f ]
b.  Vary periodicity according the conditions.      [USIT 3f ]
c.  Use pauses between impulses to perform some other action.      [USIT 3f, 4c ]

20.  Useful Action Continuity

a.  All parts of the object must work continuously.      [USIT 3f ]
b.  Eliminate all idle running.      [USIT 3f ]

21.  Skip

a.  If your object is subjected to harmful or hazardous actions within some process, conduct the process at a very high speed.      [USIT 3f ]

22.  Turn the Harm to One's Good

a.  Use harmful factors to achieve positive effects.      [USIT 2a, 3d, 4a ]
b.  Eliminate a harmful factor by adding it with another harmful factor.      [USIT 2a ]
c.  Amplify the harmful factor to such degree so that it would stop to bring harm to your object or environment.      [USIT 2a ]

23.  Feedback

a.  Introduce feedback.      [USIT 3h ]
b.  If the feedback is available, vary it in accord with operating conditions.      [USIT 3h ]

24.  Intermediary

a.  Use an intermediate carrier to provide necessary actions if it is not possible to use existing objects or parts.      [USIT 1e, 3a ]
b.  Temporarily merge your object with another one that will provide the required action and then decompose them.       [USIT 1e, 3f ]

25.  Self-service

a.  The object must serve itself by performing tuning, adjusting and repair operations itself.      [USIT 3h ]
b.  Use available resources or waste resources.      [USIT 1f, 4a ]

26.  Use of Copies

a.  If you need to undertake some actions with respect to unavailable, fragile, complicated, or dangerous object, use its simpler and cheaper copy.       [USIT 1e ]
b.  Instead of real objects, use their optical images (pictures, holograms).     [USIT 1e ]
c.  Use infrared or ultraviolet copies.       [USIT 1e ]

27.  Cheap Short-life Instead of Costly Long-life

a.  Replace an expensive object with many cheap objects which deliver the same function.      [USIT 1e ]

28.  Mechanical Principle Replacement

a.  Replace mechanical principle behind your system or object with another physical principle: optical, acoustic, magnetic, electromagnetic, thermal, etc.      [USIT 3a, 3i, 4e ]

29.  Pneumatic and Hydraulic Structures

a.  Instead of a solid object or its parts, use gases or liquids:  inflatable and filled with liquids, air cushion, hydrostatic and hydro-dynamic.      [USIT 2f, 3a,3i, 1g ]

30.  Flexible Shells and Thin Films

a.  Instead of heavy three-dimensional structures use flexible shells and thin films.       [USIT 1g, 2b ]
b.  Use flexible shells and thin films to isolate the object or its part from environment.      [USIT 1b ]

31.  Porous Materials

a.  Make your object porous.      [USIT 2f ]
b.  Use porous coating.      [USIT 1e ]
c.  Use porous inserts.      [USIT 1e ]
d.  If the object is porous, fill the pores with other substance, liquid or gas to achieve positive effect.       [USIT 1e, 2f ]

32.  Changing Color

a.  Change the color of the object, its part or environment.      [USIT 2b ]
b.  Change transparency of the object, its part or environment.      [USIT 2b ]

33.  Homogeneity

a.  Make interacting objects of the same material or the material with identical properties.      [USIT 2b ]

34.  Reject and Regeneration of Parts

a.  If a part of an object that has delivered its function had become unnecessary or undesired, elimenate it by dissolving, evaporating, etc. or modify so that the interfering property will cease to exist.      [USIT 1a, 4c ]
b.  Restore consumable parts of the object during operation.      [USIT 3f, 3i, 4c ]

35.  Change of Phsical and Chemical Parameters

a.  Change the object's aggregate state.      [USIT 2f ]
b.  Change concentration or composition of the object.      [USIT 2b]
c.  Change the degree of flexibility of the object.       [USIT 2b]
d.  Change the temperature of the object or environment.      [USIT 2b ]

36.  Phase transitions

a.  Use physical phenomena accompanied by phase transitions: change of volume, emission or absorption of heat, etc.      [USIT 2f, 3d ]

37.  Thermal Expansion

a.  Use thermal expansion or contraction of materials.     [USIT 2b ]
b.  Merge two materials with different coefficients of thermal expansion.      [USIT 2b, 1b ]

38.  Strong Oxidizers

a.  Replace regular air with enriched air.      [USIT 2b ]
b.  Replace the enriched air with pure oxygen.      [USIT 2b ]
c.  Ionize air or oxygen.      [USIT  2b]
d.  Use ozonized oxygen.      [USIT 2b ]
e.  Use ozone.      [USIT 2b ]

39.  Inert Atmosphere

a.  Use inert gases instead of usual ones.      [USIT  2b, 1e]
b.  Add neutral parts or additives to the object.      [USIT 2b, 1e ]

40.  Composites

a.  Use composite materials instead of uniform ones.       [USIT  2f, 2d, 1e, 1b]

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Last updated on Apr. 3, 2003;  [Reposted on Dec. 22, 2012]     Access point: Editor: