TRIZ
Textbooks: CID Course for Children, 31G4 

Topic 4.
Card Index
(Problem Synthesis) 
Planet
of Unsolved Misteries:
Course of Creative Imagination
Development (CID),
3rd Grade, 1st Semester,
Methodical GuideBook 
Natalia
V. Rubina, 1999 [published
in Russian]
English
translation by Irina Dolina,
Jun. 3, 2001
Technical
Editing by Toru Nakagawa, Dec.
8, 2001 
Posted
in this "TRIZ Home Page in Japan" in English on Dec. 17, 2001 under the
permission of the Author.
(C) N.V. Rubina,
I. Dolina, and T. Nakagawa 2001 

Topic
4. Card Index
(Problem Synthesis) 
Workbook
A detailed information about arranging
a card index and organizing the work with the children at elementary school
was given when we studied a corresponding topic during the CID course for
second grade [1st semester]
(Topic 1. “Card index – first step on the way to creativity”).
Topic “Problem Synthesis” is rather difficult, and our aim is not to teach
all third grade students to devise school problems according to the given
rules.
The Problem synthesis is a real research. Here
are its stages:
Choosing a topic;
collecting information;
defining contradictions;
searching for interesting solutions;
collecting additional information on the same topic.
The Card index is very important in
this case. The cards may be kept in the classroom as a common fund.
Such topics as “Using methods of making images”, “Examples of using methods
of solving contradictions”, and others may be illustrated by the models,
constructed by the children. This work may result in an exhibition.
Collections of problems, stories, fairytales, drawings, united by the
same topic are all card indexes, a concrete result of the children’s
work.
The children usually are happy to work in
a group, collecting information on one topic. It would be very nice
if you do the activities on problem synthesis by using the information
collected by the children.
1. Warm up
(Card index to the CID lessons for the third grade).
2. Homework
Considering the problems according to the scheme.
3. Introduction to the lesson
A contest was being held at school, where Emil
was studying. The third grade students competed to become “The smartest
and the cleverest team”. At first the teams answered the questions
on various subjects: Russian, Mathematics, Science and others. Both
teams got the same results. Which team will be given first place?
How to decide who is the smartest and the cleverest?
The way out was proposed by Emil. It
is necessary to devise such questions that implied knowledge in several
subjects at the same time, as if for the inventive problems.
4. Main topic
Thus, our aim is to learn how to devise inventive
problems.
First, we have to find out what’s the difference
between a creative or an inventive problem and others.
Compare the following two problems.

Buratino had two apples. Someone has taken one of them. How
many apples does Buratino have now?

Every day, returning home, a man doesn’t go to the 9th floor where he lives
by elevator, but comes out of the elevator at the 6th floor and walks up.
Why?
The main difference between these problems is
whether they contain a contradiction or not. If a problem doesn’t
have a contradiction, its solution is simple and you know for sure how
to get it. If there is a contradiction in the problem, then it has
many solutions and the way to the answer is much more complicated.
But, in our opinion, it’s more interesting to solve such a problem.
The first condition which is necessary for
an inventive problem is a situation where there is a Contradiction.
Activity 1.
Make up the questions, using contradictions.

The ancient Greeks made chariots for the war. The wheels had to be
solid in order to be hardwearing, and had to be not solid in order to
lighter and faster.
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

To build a pyramid, the ancient Egyptians needed huge stone blocks, but
it was too difficult to transport them.
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

The boats of the ancient Egyptians had sails that helped them to sail with
the wind, but the wind was not always fair.
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
Each of these problems can be solved by
many different ways. In a real life it takes often much time to find
the best solution. That is why in order to learn from the history
examples the problems should include Resources, necessary for finding
a solution.
Activity 2.
Supplement your problems with the necessary
information.

First wheels were constructed nearly 4 thousands years ago by the Sumerians.
They built carriages on the solid wooden wheels and used them for carrying
various loads. The ancient Greeks used the chariots in the war.
They put spokes into the wheels to make the carriages lighter and faster,
and then they added wooden rims to make the wheels more durable.
(Encyclopedia for Children, Publishing House “Rosman”, 1998, p. )
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

In order to build a pyramid the ancient Egyptians needed huge stone blocks,
but it was too difficult to transport them. Then they began to transport
them on the wooden platforms fixed on the logs. (Encyclopedia for Children,
Publishing House “Rosman”, 1998, p.)
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

Five thousands years ago the Egyptians built first ships of reed to cross
the river Nile. Their sail, made of papyrus, helped them to sail
with the wind. When they sailed against the wind, the slaves were
rowing. (Encyclopedia for Children, Publishing House “Rosman”,
1998,p.)
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
While solving the problem it is necessary
to know for sure, what Has Been before.
Thus, for a good inventive problem three conditions
are required:

Description of the previous situation (“Was”).

Contradiction.

Resources for solution.
Activity 3.
Devise problems.

In Ancient Rome if one asked a passer by about the time, he would point
at the post in the center of the round square. The sun, moving from sunrise
to sunset, pushed the shadow of the post which served a pointer
of a sundial. “The time can be measured by steps", the Roman said,
passing over the shadow, and added, “The shadow length is eight steps,
it means that it’s time I had dinner”. (Magazine “Tram”)
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

On the way from Rome to Egypt, I asked a stranger about the time.
He took out a small pivot, put it into the hole in his walking stick and
the shadow of the pivot pointed at a mark on the stick. It turned
out that his walking stick served as a portable sunclock. (Magazine
“Tram”).
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

In Spain, while visiting King Carl 5, I saw a big candle with 24 points
on it. The candle, burning, decreased by one point every hour. “Your Majesty!
One more hour has passed!” a servant who was watching the clockcandle
shouted. “Oh, you are my alarmclock", answered the king and gently
tousled his hair. (Magazine “Tram”)
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
7. Sum up
You may sum up the work on topic “Problem Synthesis”
in the form of a Quiz, like the games “What? Where? When?”,
“Brain Ring” and so on. The question for the game should be chosen
by the children themselves, of course with your assistance. A script
of one of these lessons you will find in “Card index to the CID lessons
for the third grade”.
Workbook
References

Altov, G.: "And Suddenly The Inventor Appeared",
Moscow, “Detskaya Literatura” 1989.

Altshuller, G. S.: "To Find An Idea", Novosibirsk,
"Nauka", 1991.

Granovskaya, R. M.: "Elements of Practical Psychology",
SanktPetersburg, Publishing House, "Svet", 1997.

Grinder and Bendler: "From a Frog into a Princess",
(Neurolinguistic programming)

Petrusinsky, V. V. (ed.): "Games: Educating, Training,
Recreation", Moscow, "Novaya shkola", 1994.

Murashewska, I. N. and Nesterenko, A. A.: Seminar
Papers, 19941995.

Murashewska I. N.: "When I Become a Magician",
Poznanie: issue No. 5 Riga, 1993

Rubin, M. S.: Articles.

Rubina, N. V.: "Program of CID Course for the
Elementary School", Petrozavodsk, 1996.

Rubina, N. V.: "Workbook on CID (Creative Imagination
Development) for the Second Grade (second semester)", Petrozavodsk, 1998.

Altshuller, G. S. (ed.): "Theory and Practice of Solving
Creative Problems", Gorkii, 1976.

Selutsky, A. B (compiled), "An Opportunity for An
Adventure", Petrozavodsk, “Karelia”, 1991.
[See Supplements
at the end of the Workbook
]
[End of
the Guide Book 31.]
Last updated
on Dec. 17, 2001. Access point: Editor:
nakagawa@utc.osakagu.ac.jp