TRIZ
Textbooks: CID Course for Children, 31W4 

Topic 4.
Card Index
(Problem Synthesis) 
Planet
of Unsolved Misteries:
Course of Creative Imagination
Development (CID), 3rd Grade, 1st Semester, Children Workbook 
Natalia
V. Rubina, 1998 [published
in Russian]
English
translation by Irina Dolina,
June 3, 2001
Technical
Editing by Toru Nakagawa, December
15, 2001 
Published
in this "TRIZ Home Page in Japan" in English on Dec. 17, 2001 under the
permission of the Author.
(C) N.V.Rubina,
I. Dolina, T. Nakagawa, 2001 

Topic
4. Card Index
(Problem Synthesis) 
A contest was being held
at school, where Emil was studying. The third grade students competed
to become “The smartest and the cleverest team”. At first the teams
answered the questions on various subjects: Russian, Mathematics, Science
and others. Both teams got the same results. Which team will
be given first place? How to decide who is the smartest and the cleverest?
The way out was proposed
by Emil. It is necessary to devise such questions that implied knowledge
in several subjects at the same time, as if for the inventive problems.
Thus, our aim is
to learn how to devise inventive problems.
First, we have to find
out what’s the difference between a creative or an inventive problem and
others.
Compare the following two problems.

Buratino had two apples. Someone has taken one
of them. How many apples does Buratino have now?

Every day, returning home, a man doesn’t go to the
9th floor where he lives by elevator, but comes out of the elevator at
the 6th floor and walks up. Why?
The main difference between
these problems is whether they contain a contradiction or not. If
a problem doesn’t have a contradiction, its solution is simple and you
know for sure how to get it. If there is a contradiction in the problem,
then it has many solutions and the way to the answer is much more complicated.
But, in our opinion, it’s more interesting to solve such a problem.
The first condition which
is necessary for an inventive problem is a situation where there is a Contradiction.
Activity 1.
Make up the questions,
using contradictions.

The ancient Greeks made chariots for the war.
The wheels had to be solid in order to be hardwearing, and had to be not
solid in order to lighter and faster.
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To build a pyramid, the ancient Egyptians needed huge
stone blocks, but it was too difficult to transport them.
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The boats of the ancient Egyptians had sails that
helped them to sail with the wind, but the wind was not always fair.
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Each of these problems
can be solved by many different ways. In a real life it takes often
much time to find the best solution. That is why in order to learn
from the history examples the problems should include Resources,
necessary for finding a solution.
Activity 2.
Supplement your problems
with the necessary information.

First wheels were constructed nearly 4 thousands years
ago by the Sumerians. They built carriages on the solid wooden wheels
and used them for carrying various loads. The ancient Greeks used
the chariots in the war. They put spokes into the wheels to make
the carriages lighter and faster, and then they added wooden rims to make
the wheels more durable. (Encyclopedia for Children, Publishing House
“Rosman”, 1998, p. )
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In order to build a pyramid the ancient Egyptians
needed huge stone blocks, but it was too difficult to transport them.
Then they began to transport them on the wooden platforms fixed on the
logs. (Encyclopedia for Children, Publishing House “Rosman”,1998, p.)
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Five thousands years ago the Egyptians built first
ships of reed to cross the river Nile. Their sail, made of papyrus,
helped them to sail with the wind. When they sailed against the wind,
the slaves were rowing. (Encyclopedia for Children, Publishing
House “Rosman”, 1998,p.)
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While solving the problem
it is necessary to know for sure, what Has Been before.
Thus, for a good inventive
problem three conditions are required:

Description of the previous situation (“Was”).

Contradiction.

Resources for solution.
Activity 3.
Make up problems.

In Ancient Rome if one asked a passer by about the
time, he would point at the post in the center of the round square. The
sun, moving from sunrise to sunset, pushed the shadow of the post
which served a pointer of a sundial. “The time can be measured by
steps", the Roman said, passing over the shadow, and added, “The shadow
length is eight steps, it means that it’s time I had dinner”. (Magazine
“Tram”)
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On the way from Rome to Egypt, I asked a stranger
about the time. He took out a small pivot, put it into the hole in his
walking stick and the shadow of the pivot pointed at a mark on the stick.
It turned out that his walking stick served as a portable sunclock.
(Magazine “Tram”).
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In Spain, while visiting King Carl 5, I saw a big
candle with 24 points on it. The candle, burning, decreased by one point
every hour. “Your Majesty! One more hour has passed!” a servant who
was watching the clockcandle shouted. “Oh, you are my alarmclock",
answered the king and gently tousled his hair. (Magazine “Tram”)
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Last updated
on Dec. 17, 2001. Access point: Editor:
nakagawa@utc.osakagu.ac.jp