4.  To learn various methods for implementing technological goals
       (Effects Module: Part 2. Functions)

The most important usage of the [Effects Module] is that the user, by specifying the
technical goal he wants to achieve, retrieves various methods and means which may be
useful to achieve the goal.  This usage is one  essencial part of the TRIZ methodology.  It
is useful not only for studying the knowledges implemented in the tool but also, and with
more importance, for searching means of solving user's own technical problem.

For users to specify their technical goals (or target functions), TRIZ offers a
hierarchically classified table of goals, as shown in Table 4.1.  The classified goals are
expressed in the form of "what object" and "what action".  The goals at the top level are
as follows (in an order rearranged by the present author instead of the alphabetical order
in the tool):
Substances (as the object):  obtain, retain, protect, eliminate,
move, separate,
measure properties of, change properties of
 "Fields" (as the object):  generate, accumulate, absorb,
change spacial arrangement of,
measure properties of, change properties of

These goals are further classified in detail at the lower levels; in total, 283 goals (or target
functions) are listed.

Table 4.1  Classification table of the [Functions] (i.e. target functions) in the [Effect
1.  Substance:  Change Properties
   change acoustic properties 
   change area 
   change chemical properties 
   change color 
   change conductivity 
   change corrosion resistance 
   change density 
   change elasticity 
   change electric properties 
   change friction coefficients 
   change hardness 
   change image 
   change magnetic properties 
   change mechanical properties 
   change optical properties 
   change plasma properties 
   change plasticity 
   change roughness 
   change shape 
   change sizes 
   change solubility 
   change state of aggregation 
   change strength 
   change structure 
   change surface properties 
   change thermophysical properties 
   change viscosity 
   change volume 
   change wetting angle 
   produce image 
2.  Substance:  Eliminate 
  absorb gaseous substance 
  absorb liquid substance 
  absorb substance 
  break down solid
  break down solid's surface 
  decompose hydrate 
  decompose hydride 
  decompose hydroxide 
  decompose oxide 
  decompose substance 
  remove gaseous substance 
  remove gaseous substance impurities 
  remove impurities 
  remove impurities from surface 
  remove liquid substance 
  remove liquid substance impurities 
  remove loose substance 
  remove loose substance impurities 
  remove particles of substance 
  remove solid 
  remove substance 
  treat solid's surface 

3.  Substance :  Measure properties 
  define dimensions 
  define position 
  define structure 
  detect defects 
  detect impurities 
  detect substance 
  determine change in size 
  determine chemical properties 
  determine composition 
  determine corrosion resistance 
  determine level of liquid 
  determine solubility 
  determine surface properties 
  measure density 
  measure elasticity 
  measure electric properties 
  measure inertia characteristics 
  measure magnetic properties 
  measure mass 
  measure mechanical properties 
  measure optical properties 
  measure out substance    ? 
  measure roughness 
  measure thermophysical properties 
  measure viscosity 
  measure volume 
  visualize object's changes 
  visualize presence of certain substance 
4.  Substance :  Move
  agitate loose substance 
  change level of liquid 
  move gaseous substance 
  move liquid substance 
  move loose substance 
  move object 
  move particles of substance 
  move solid body 
  move solid body (in cycles) 
  move solid body (micromovement) 
  move submolecular particles 
  orient object 
  orient particles of substance 
  orient solid body 
  orient submolecular particles 
  rotate particles of substance 
  rotate solid 
  stir liquid substance 
  transmit gaseous substance 
  transmit image 
  transmit liquid substance 
  transmit loose substance 
  transmit solid 

5.  Substance :  Obtain 
  evolve gaseous substance 
  evolve liquid substance 
  extract substance 
  obtain preset surface form 
  produce aerogel 
  produce aerosol 
  produce emulsion 
  produce foam 
  produce gaseous substance 
  produce gaseous substance (bubbles) 
  produce gel 
  produce ions 
  produce liquid substance 
  produce liquid substance (drops) 
  produce loose substance 
  produce plasma 
  produce solid substance 
  produce solid substance (crystals) 
  produce solid substance (film) 
  produce solution 
  synthesize acid 
  synthesize hydrate 
  synthesize hydride 
  synthesize hydroxide 
  synthesize salt 
  synthesize substance 

6.  Substance :  Protect 
 preserve object 
 protect against chemical actions 
 protect against electric actions 
 protect against heat actions 
 protect against magnetic actions 
 protect against mechanical actions 

7.  Substance : Retain 
 apply substance to surface 
 deposit particles on surface 
 embed particles in material 
 hold gaseous substance 
 hold liquid substance 
 hold loose substance 
 hold particles of substance 
 hold solid 
 join particles of substance 
  join solid bodies 
  join solid bodies (stick together) 
  join solid bodies (weld together) 
  retain gaseous substance 
  retain liquid substance 
  retain loose substance 
  retain particles of substance 
  retain solid 

8.  Substance :  Separate 
 comminute particles of substance 
 crush solid body 
 extract disolved gas from liquid 
 extract gas mixture component 
 extract liquid mixture component 
 extract loose substance from liquid 
 extract loose substance mixture component 
 extract submolecular particles 
 extract substance from solution 
  extract substance particles from gas 
  separate isotopes 
  separate liquid substances 
  separate particles of substance 
  separate solid (into parts) 
  separate solids 
  separate solids (to sort) 
  spray liquid substance 

9.  Field :  Absorb 
  absorb accelerating particles' flow 
  absorb acoustic field 
  absorb heat energy 
  absorb mechanical energy 
  absorb mechanical vibration energy 
  absorb optical radiation 
  absorb Roentgen rays 

10.  Field :  Accumulate
  accumulate heat energy 
  accumulate mechanical energy 

11.  Field :  Change Properties 
  change accelerating particles' flow 
  change acoustic fields 
  change brightness 
  change chemical processes 
  change concentration 
  change consumption of substance 
  change diffusion flow 
  change electric charge 
  change electric current 
  change electric fields 
  change flow rate 
  change flow resistance 
  change force 
  change force of friction 
  change frequency 
  change heat and mass transfer 
       characteristics  @@@ 
  change heat exchange 
  change heat fields 
  change internal stresses 
  change light diffusion 
  change magnetic fields 
  change mechanical vibrations' parameters 
  change motion's properties 
  change optical radiation 
  change optical radiation characteristics 
  change phase 
  change power 
  change power consumption 
  change pressure 
  change radio waves' characteristics 
  change Roentgen rays' characteristics 
  change spectrum characteristics 
  change speed 
  change substance flows 
  change temperature 
  change tractive resistance 
  change velocity of reaction 
  change wavelength 
  create electric current oscillations 
  erase information 
  increase observation angle 
  record information 

12.  Field :  Generate
  create accelerating particles' flow 
  create electric current 
  create electric field 
  create magnetic field 
  create temperature gradient 
  evolve heat energy 
  generate acoustic field 
  generate optical radiation 
  generate radio waves 
  initiate chemical reaction 
  produce difference of pressures 
  produce impact waves 
  produce mechanical force 
  produce mechanical vibrations 
  produce pressure pulses 
  produce substance flow 

13.  Field :  Measure properties
  detect changes of temperature 
  detect electric fields 
  detect magnetic fields 
  detect mechanical vibrations 
  detect optical radiation 
  detect radioactivity 
  measure accelerating particles' flows 
  measure acoustical field's characteristics 
  measure concentration 
  measure electric charge 
  measure electric current 
  measure electric fields 
  measure flow rate 
  measure flow resistance 
  measure force 
  measure friction force 
  measure humidity 
  measure internal stresses 
  measure magnetic field's parameters 
  measure mechanical vibrations' parameters 
  measure motion characteristics 
  measure optical radiation 
  measure pressure 
  measure radioactivity 
  measure speed 
  measure substance consumption 
  measure substance flows 
  measure temperature 
  visualize field 

14.  Field :  Redistribute in Space 
  concentrate acoustic energy 
  concentrate heat energy 
  concentrate mechanical energy 
  concentrate optical radiation 
  concentrate radio waves 
  disperse optical radiation 
  orient gaseous substance flow 
  orient liquid substance flow 
  orient loose substance flow 
  reflect acoustic field 
  reflect optical radiation 
  transmit electric current 
  transmit mechanical force 
  transmit optical radiation 
  transmit pressure 
  transmit rotation 

[Operation:  See Fig. 4.1.  In the [Functions window] located at the middle left in the
initail display of the [Effects Module], you should specify (and click) your technical goal
(or target function) you want to achieve, by using the classification shown in Table 4.1.
In the [Effects window] at the upper right of the display, there appears a list of possible
candidate methods for achieving the target function.  By clicking one of those methods in
the [Effects window], a list of application examples of the method appears in the
[Examples window] at the lower right of the display.  Double-clicking any of the effects
or examples guides you to the display of the effect or the example, in the form as
demonstrated already in Section 3. ]

Fig. 4.1  Example of the main display of the [Effect Module]:
              Specifying [Functions], [Effects], and [Examples]

Thus, corresponding to the target function you want to achieve, you can obtain a large
number of Effects (i.e. technical principles) and Examples (i.e. technical application
cases) in an assocative way.  This function is very useful.  Since the "goal" is specified in
an abstract term as discussed above, the "means" thus suggested may contain quite
different methods which can be used in various situations.  The user should read (or take
a look at) each of these methods and consider how it can be used in his own problem.
Some of them may be useless because of so much difference in the situation setting, but
there can be some others which may be applicable to the user's problem and yet not
thought of by the user.  You can get acquainted with excellent methods used in other
areas and can get nice hints of new methods for solving your own problems.

One of the features of the [TechOptimizer] as a tool is its powerful ability of retrieving
information in the Effects and Examples databases of the [Effects Module] by using
various ways of associative search.  The mechanism of this associative search seems to
be implemented by use of keywords (or other means) set in the texts of each database
item.  Fig. 4.2 shows the association relation (or search mechanism) of these databases as
understood by the present author.

Fig. 4.2  Association relation and information retrieval schemes in the Effects and
Examples databases of the [Effects Module]

[Operation:   To access the Effects and Examples databases, you should first open one of
the three main displays (i.e. [Functions] window, [Effects] window and [Examples]
window) of the [Effects Module], then open the [Database] menue in the menue bar, and
click either [Effect database] or [Example database].  Similarly in the [Database] menue,
you may click the [Find] command to open the [Find] window for searching the database
with a keyword.  From the [Effects] window and the [Examles] window, you may use
various associative information retrieval methods shown in Fig. 4.2, even though the
operation details are not described here. ]

The associative retrieval methods discussed above are very useful.  Especially, the
keyword search in the [Find] window is powerful.  For instance, by searching with the
keyword of "heat pipe", 9 technical principles ("Effects") and 10 application examples are
retrieved, as demonstrated in Fig. 4.3.  This keyword search is implemented as the
matching of the keywords in the titles of Effects and Examples.

Fig. 4.3  An Example of the [Find] keyword search in the [Effects Module]:
        Technical principles ("Effects") and application examples retrieved with the
        keyword "heat pipe",
Top of this page Table 4-1 Classified target functions 4-1 Specifying a target function 4-2 Associative search 4-3 Keyword search Next page

1. Overview 2. Trends in Tech. Evolution 3. System of Science & Technology 4. Implementing 
Tech. Goals
5. Improving User's System 6. 40 Principles 
of Invention
7. Solving Contradiction 8.  Describing User's System 9.  Functional Analysis 10.  Trimming & 
Feature Transfer
11. Recording 
& Reporting
12. Conclusion

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Last updated on Feb. 25, 1999.     Access point:  Editor: nakagawa@utc.osaka-gu.ac.jp