3.  To learn the system of science and technology from a practical viewpoint
       (Effects Module: Part 1. Effects and Examples)

Next, let us examine the science and technology database implemented in
[TechOptimizer Pro] (or treated in TRIZ).  We want to know which areas the software
tool supports and which others not.  We also would like to expand our own understanding
of technology through this work.  The TRIZ way of classifying the science and
technology suggests us a new approach  to practical problem solving, in contrast to the
conventional "academic" way of understanding science and technology.

[Operation:  By opening the [Effects Module], we have the display of the [Function].  At
moment we should skip all the main functions of this display and just try to access the
database containing various technical principles (i.e. "Effects" in TRIZ).  If we simply
click the [Effects database], there appears a list of 521 "Effects" grouped into only three
categories (i.e. physical, chemical, and geometrical) and arranged inside in the
alphabetical order.  This is of no use to understand the area classification.  So, instead,
we should open the [Database] menue in the menue bar at the top, and click the [Effects
Sorted by Groups] command. ]

In the display of [Groups of Effects], there are 109 groups of technical principles
("Effects") arranged in the alphabetical order.  Each group contains from 3 to nearly 50
specific technical principles ("Effects"); but there are many Effects assigned to multiple
groups, and also some not relevant so much to the group.  Figure 3.1 shows an example
display which is obtained by clicking the [Phase transition of the first kind] group in the
[Group of effects] display.  At the lower part of the display, the group description is
briefly given.

Fig. 3.1   An example of display of [Groups of effects] in the [Effects Module]

After selecting an Effect in the dispaly like Fig. 3.1, you may doule click it (or press the
[View] button); then the explanation of the Effect is displayed, as shown in Fig. 3.2.
The explanation contains one illustration and some text of 1 to 3 scrolls of display
together with references; the explanation is concise and easy to understand.  The example
shown in Fig. 3.2 is the display of the Effect [heat pipe thermal superconductivity]; it
shows the technical principle of a heat pipe used for thermal exchange such as cooling.

Fig. 3.2  An example of the [View effect] display in the [Effects Module]:
                  Super-thermal conductivity by using the heat pipe

In the [Groups of effects] display shown in Fig. 3.1, you may select an Effect and then
press the [Example] button to see a list of technical examples using the Effect; then you
may double click an example to read its detail.  Fig. 3.3 is the display of the example
[Device for Epitaxy] which uses the principle of the heat pipe (actually, this example was
obtained through a related effect [Effects of heat pipe condenser isothermicity]).  This
example uses the principle that the low-temperature part, i.e. condenser part, of the heat
pipe has a uniform temperature and is useful to cool a wide area of a silicon wafer
uniformly in an epitaxy equipment.  By reading this sort of concrete examples, you may
realize that the effect can be applied to a system quite different from the one in the

Fig. 3.3   An example of the [View example] display in the [Effects Module]:
                 Epitaxy equipment (uniform cooling of a wide area by use of a heat pipe)

It is of much interest for us users to know what range of technical fields the
[TechOptimizer Pro] software tool actually handles with and what kind of effects it
implements.  For examining these points, the present author tried to classify the 109
groups in the [Groups of Effects] in a meaningful way.  A hierarchical classification table
thus obtained is shown in Table 3.1.  The top level of the classified table of the [Groups
of Effects] of [TechOptimizer Pro] is composed as follows:

     A.  Mathematics
     B.  Mechanical
     C.  Thermal
     D.  Optical and electromagnetic wave
     E.  Electrical
     F.  Magnetic and electromagnetic
     G.  Substances and material
     H.  Interaction between substances and "Fields"
     I.  Chemical
     J.  Elementary particles

Through the classification of the groups of effects, the following points are revealed:

(a)  Almost all the areas related to physics are covered in the software:  they include
mechanical, thermal, optical, electrical, magnetic and electro-magnetic, elementary
particles, substances, and interactions between substances and "Fields".

(b)  In chemistry, only basic areas are covered:  i.e. chemical, substances and materials.

(c)  The effects, even in physics, are described not theoretically but practically for
applications and its basis.  (Scientific theories are not described.)

(d)  In relation to the above standing point, the software puts much weights on the
description of interactions between substances/materials of various states and
characteristics and various "Fields", including conversions of the "Fields".

(e)  Description of each Effect is concise.  From the eyes of specialists in its specific
area, the description covers only basic and well-known facts.  But for specialists in other
areas and for ordinary non-specialist engineers, the description summarizes the Effects
and their background technologies in a way appropriate and easy to read.

(f)  The software tool [TechOptimizer Pro] rarely handles with the fields of medicine,
biology, biological substances, and genetic information.

(g)  The software tool does not handle with the areas of software information processing
and of services.

The coverage area revealed above reflects the history of development of the TRIZ
methodology; it will certaily be expanded in the future.  It should be important for us to
extend the TRIZ methodology itself to the new areas, such as those mentioned above in
(f) and (g).

Table 3.1   Areas covered in the [Effects] database
                Hierarchical classification of [Groups of Effects] in the [Effects Module]
                 by Toru Nakagawa (Jan. 2, 1998)
              Note:  The goups with * are new ones devided/refined by Nakagawa.
A.  Mathematics
  Geometric effects 

B.  Mechanical
  Mechanical Phenomena 
  Bernoulli's Law 
  Hydroaerostatic phenomena 
  Wetting and surface tension 
  Capillary Phenomena 
  Transport phenomena 
  Vibrations and waves 
  Acoustic Phenomena 
  Geometric acoustics 
  Shock wave 

C.   Thermal
  Thermal phenomena 
  Thermal expansion of solids 
  Transport in a thermal field 

D.   Optical and 
     electromagnetic wave
  Optical phenomena 
  Geometric Optics 
  Linear optical phenomena 
  Light radiation 
  Light absorption 
  Light scattering 
  Physiological optics 
  Electromagnetic Waves 
  Electrooptic Phenomena 
  Absorption of Electromagnetic 
  Absorption of X-ray radiation 
  Absorption of Gamma radiation 
  Ponderomotive phenomena 
  Ponderomotive action of light 
  Quantum optical phenomena 

E.   Electrical
  Electric Phenomena 
  Electrostatic phenomena 
  Electric current 
  Electric current in a liquid 
  Electric current in a solid 
  Electric current in contacts 
      and boundary surfaces 
* Properties and functions of 
     semiconductor devices 
  Electric Discharge in Gases 
  Electrokinetic effects 

F.   Magnetic and 
* Magnetism 
  Magnetic Phenomena 
  Substances in a magnetic field 
  Hysterisis phenomena in 
  Galvanomagnetic phenomena 

G.   Substances and
  Physical chemistry 
  Contact Phenomena 
  Dispersive medium deformation 

I.  Interaction between 
  substances and fields 
  Phase transitions 
* Liquid crystals and 
     electrochromic effect 
  Phase transitions of the first 
  Phase transitions of the 
     second kind 
  Thermal phenomena in solids 
  Thermal phenomena occurring 
     at a contact between two 

  Thermal phenomena in a 
     superfluid liquid 
  Themoelectric phenomena 
  Thermomagnetic phenomena 
  Magnetothermal phenomena 
  Magnetic phase transitions 
  Magneto-Optical phenomena 
  Nonlinear optical phenomena 
  Physical effects 
  Phenomena in crystals 
  Phenomena in dielectrics 
  Phenomena in dispersion media 

J.   Chemical
  General Chemistry 
  Inorganic chemistry 
  Organic Chemistry 
  Metathetic reactions 
  Oxidation-reduction reactions 
  Bonding Reactions 
  Decomposition Reactions 
  Intermolecular interaction 
  Reaction with visible changes 
  Chemical Reactions at High 
  Chemical Technology 
* Chemical Technology with a 
     fluidized bed 
* Chemical Technology with 
* Chemical Technology with 
* Chemical technology with 
* Chemical Technology with 

K.  Particles
  Quantum coherence 
  Motion of particles in a 
  Interaction of Particles with 
     a material 

Top of this page 3-1 Groups of Effects 3-2 Effects view 3-3 Example view Table 3-1 Areas covered Next page

1. Overview 2. Trends in Tech. Evolution 3. System of Science & Technology 4. Implementing 
Tech. Goals
5. Improving User's System 6. 40 Principles 
of Invention
7. Solving Contradiction 8.  Describing User's System 9.  Functional Analysis 10.  Trimming & 
Feature Transfer
11. Recording 
& Reporting
12. Conclusion

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Last updated on Feb. 25, 1999.     Access point:  Editor: nakagawa@utc.osaka-gu.ac.jp