Dr. Ed Sickafus Memorial Archives

   (3) Sickafus' Books, Overviews, Tutorials, etc.

Ed Sickafus

Compiled by Toru Nakagawa (OGU)

Posted:  Mar. 22, 2020 

Editor's Note (Toru Nakagawa, Feb. 26, 2020)

This page shows a list of Books, Overviews, Tutorials, etc. written by Dr. Ed Sickafus. 

Each book is shown with its bibliographic records, table of contents.
Original English texts are either posted here in PDF accessible with buttons, or not posted here yet at moment waiting for the treatment decisions.  In case of USIT Overview eBook, the Japanese translation version is posted already in this Web site (in 2004)


Top of this page

Sickafus Memorial Archive  Welcome page

Sickafus Memorial Archive  Index page

(1) Memorial page

(2) Historical index (A) Papers

(2) Historical index (B) Case studies

(2) Historical index (C) Communications

(3) Sickafus' Books

(4) Sickafus' Papers, Presentations

(5) Sickafus' USIT site

(6) Sickafus' WordPress site (A) Top

(6) Sickafus' WordPress site (B) Blog

(7) Sickafus' USIT NewsLetters

(8) Sickafus' Communications, Miscellaneous Articles

(9) Comments by others

(10) From Readers 

USIT Overview (2001)

Brief USIT Tutorial (2015)

  Japanese Archives Index page


 Sickafus' Books, Overviews, Tutorials, etc.   (compiled by Toru Nakagawa, Feb. 23, 2020)


Short name


Author (year)

Publication form

English text

Japanese text

(1) USIT Textbook Unified Structured Inventive Thinking: How to Invent Ed Sickafus (1997) Book, published by Ntelleck, 488 pages Not posted yet no
(2) USIT Overview (eBook) Unified Structured Inventive Thinking - An Overview

Ed Sickafus (2001)

Digital posting in www.u-sit.net (2003);
46 pages

Posted in PDF

posted (2004)

(3) Book HSTP  Heuristics for Solving Technical Problems - Theory, Derivation, Application

Ed Sickafus (2004)

Book, digital posting, 113 pages

Posted in PDF


(4) HI Textbook  Heuristic Innovation:  Engaging both brain hemispheres in rapidly solving technical problems for multiple solution concepts

Ed Sickafus (2006)

Book, digital posting in www.u-sit.net (2007);
260 pages

Posted in PDF


(5) Brief USIT Tutorial  A Brief Tutorial on Unified Structured Inventive Thinking

Ed Sickafus (2014)

ICSI  2014 Tutorial, digital posting in edsickafus.wordpress.com; 48 pages

Posted in PDF



Note (TN, Feb. 26, 2020):  Following is announced in the USIT Web site (in 2007), but not mentioned in the WordPress site (in 2015).   Arrangement from now on will be announced in the near future by Kurt Ed Sickafus. For the time being, the USIT Textbook will not be posted here in this Memorial Archives.   Other textbooks (HSTP and HI), USIT Overview, Brief USIT Tutorial, and all other papers and articles by Dr. Ed Sickafus are posted publicly in his Web sites and in this Archive and are downloadable without any charge or any registration.

Purchase Textbooks (Jul. 2007, in www.u-sit.net, Ed Sickafus)

Special Offer: Both the USIT-textbook (hardbound, $44.50) and the HI-textbook (electronic, pdf, $22.50) are available for the price of one – $44.50 US – plus shipping&handling for the hardbound book. This offer is good while the USIT-textbooks remain in stock. Payment may be made by check drawn on a US bank or by credit card service provided by PayPal. After completing registration and publication selections you will be transferred to PayPal to complete a credit card purchase. The USIT textbook will be delivered by Preferred US Mail. The HI textbook will be mailed to your email address at the end of completing your transaction with PayPal.       

In the WordPress site (edsickafus.wordpress.com) (Sept. 2015)

The HI-textbook is made downloadable without charge, but there is no mention on the USIT Textbook.



 (1) USIT Textbook: 

"Unified Structured Inventive Thinking: How to Invent"
(Ed N. Sickafus, NTELLECK, 1997; 488 pages)


Note (TN, Feb. 27, 2020):  English text is not posted in thie Archives yet, waiting for the arrangement.


Dr. Sickafus introduces the USIT textbook as follows in his USIT Site:


Introduction of the USIT Textbook (Ed Sickafus, in www.u-sit.net)

The basics of structured problem solving of routine day-to-day design-type problems and of problems requiring invention are taught in the "Unified Structured Inventive Thinking – How to Invent" textbook.  

The USIT textbook establishes a unified approach to
      ∆ self-consistent definitions,        ∆ viable problem definition,    ∆ logically organized procedure,
      ∆ plausible root-cause analyses,  ∆ solution techniques,            ∆ new concept generation,
based on three fundamentals:  objects,  attributes, and the functions they support.
Examples, demonstrations, and exercises are employed to speed the learning process with deference to logical (left-brain) thinking. USIT addresses the pre-engineering phase of all problem solving – the concept-generation phase. Pre-engineering includes all manner of problems. USIT does not solve problems; nor does any other problem-solving methology – you do!
USIT shows the way to new perspectives of the same thing others face but can't seem to find the insight for creative thinking. You too can invent.

[Note (TN, Feb. 26, 2020):  The availability and purchase arrangement will be announced by Kurt Ed Sickafus in the near future.  English version is not posted here at moment.]


Table of Contents   (USIT Textbook)

i    Preface
        The Missing Link
        Techniques for solving technical problems
        Creative thinking
        Conceptual solutions for conceptual problems
ii    Acknowledgments                      
iii   Table of Contents
iv    SIT Flowchart                   
v     Table of Example Problems                 

1   Introduction                          
        Solving problems
        How do you solve problems?
        Base-line exercise.
        Who needs SIT?
        Success with SIT
        Layout of the book.

2  History of Structured Inventive Thinking              
        Origin of the Theory of Solving Inventive Problems
        Origin of Systematic Inventive Thinking
        Origin of Structured Inventive Thinking

3   Overview of Structured Inventive Thinking            
        What SIT is
        Confinement --> Creativity
        Adapting to SIT
        What SIT is not
        SIT in Summary
4   Demonstration of Structured Inventive Thinking
        Collection of information and problem statement
            The Ice Removal Problem
        Selection of objects
        SIT: The Closed-World Method
            Closed-world diagram
            Technological contradiction and the qualitative-change graph
        SIT: The Particles Method
            Problem Situation-to-Ideal Solution Process
            Application of Particles
            The And/Or tree
        SIT: Objects, Attributes and Functions
            Objects, Attributes and Functions
        SIT: Object-Attribute-Function Expanded CW-Diagram
        SIT: Solution Techniques
            Generification of solutions
        Comments on Root Cause
        Example Problem
5   Information                       
        Define the Problem
        The One-Problem Target of SIT
            What is the problem?
        Ill Defined and Well Defined Problems
        Misleading Demonstration Problems
        The INFORMATION stage of the SIT process
            The One-Problem Target
            The Graphic Statement
            Elevation to a Puzzle
        Example #__ The mountain climbing monk.
        Example #__ The Bicycle Transmission Invention
        A "Flowery" Picture
        The Level of the Puzzle

6   Objects                           
        Tangible Components of a Problem
        Fewer is Better
        The Closed-world of Objects
        Definition of Objects
        Selection of a List of Objects
        The Bicycle Transmission Problem Continued
        Example: Selection of Objects in a Packing Operation
        The Two Algorithms of SIT
7   The Closed-World Algorithm                    
        The Closed-world diagram
            Object connectivity
            Rules for object connectivity
            Neighborhood and Environmental objects
            Compound objects
            Finding the most important object
            "Desired Effect" lies in the eye of the beholder
            No unique CW-diagram
        Example: The Ball-Point Pen Problem
        Limited Object Sets
        Exercise: List of Objects and CW-Diagram
        The Qualitative-Change Graph
            Technical Contradiction
            A Qualitative-Change in a Problem Characteristic
            Example of a Qualitative-Change Graph
        Exercise: Qualitative Changes in Problem Characteristics
8.  The particles-method algorithm            
        Magical Particles
        A Graphic Procedure
        The Ideal Solution or Invention
        Exercise: Ideal Solutions
        The Solution Path Analysis
        Metamorphosis from the Problem Situation to the Solution
        Example of a Morph Cartoon
        When Time is a Factor
        Placement of Particles
        From "Smart Little People" to "Particles"
        Applying Particles
        Examples of Particle's Placements
        Preferred Particles Locations
        The And/Or Tree
        Initiation/Termination of Particles          
        Example of the Roughened Ball Continued
        The Particle's Properties Lists
        Example of the Roughened Ball Continued
        Example: The Ear Wax Problem
9.  Objects, Attributes, and Functions         
        An Object, Attribute, Function Pseudo-Space
        Purpose of Expanded CW-Diagrams
        What is it -- an Object, an Attribute, or a Function?
        Definitions of Objects Their Attributes, Metrics and Functions
        Examples of Objects, Attributes, Metrics and Functions         
        Forces, Fields and Energy
        Motion and Flow
        Heat -- an Object, an Attribute, a Function, or the Imperfect Metaphor?
        Example of Attribute Created Information
        Need of an Object-Attribute-Function Expanded CW-Diagram
        Example of Development of an Expanded CW-Diagram -- 1st Stage
        Construction of an Expanded CW-Diagram
        Example of Development of an Expanded CW-Diagram -- 2nd Stage
        Example Problem:  "A Physicist's Clock" -- Analysis of a Simple Pendulum
            Illustrating the Roles of Objects, Attributes and Functions.
10. Solution Techniques                  
        Five Solution Techniques
        Uniqueness: An Investigation of Temporal and Spatial Distinction
            Temporal uniqueness
            Temporal treatments
            Spatial uniqeness
            Spatial treatments
            Object/Attribute uniqueness
            Uniqueness solution ploys
            Examples of uniqueness
        Dimensionality: An attack on attributes
            Examples of dimensionality
        Pluralization: An attack on objects
            Examples of pluralization
        Unification: An attack on functions
            Examples of unification
        Resources for inventive solutions
        Solution Templates
        The Ice-Block Removal Problem Revisitd for Solution Templates
        Transduction Phenomena
        SIT Transduction
        A Glass/Mercury Thermometer
        The Ice-Block Removal Problem Continued:
        Examples of Transduction Phenomena
        Transduction is a Function
        Transduction Analysis
11. Generification -- a SIT process               
        Generification reduces psychological barriers    
        Solution space
        The Generic World
        Problem Generification
            The butter patty melting problem
        Information Generification
        Object Generification
        Attribute Generification
        Function Generification
            Examples of function generification
        Solution Technique Generification
        Transducer Generification
        Solution Generification
12  Single-Object Functional analysis                      
        The One-Object Situation
        Focus on Functions
        The Functional-Analysis Diagram
        Example of A Single-Object Functional Analysis
            Improving a product
            Select an object
            Define the object
            Uses for a knob
            Functions of a knob
            Construction of a functional diagram for a knob
            Attributes Associated by Knob Functions
        From a Single-Object Functional Analysis to Solution Techniques
        Summary of Knob Solution Concepts
13  Contradictions                       
        Altshuller's Use of Contradictions
        Israeli's Use of Problem Characteristics
        SIT's Use of Contradictions
        Methods for Developing Technological Contradictions
        Examples of Constructing SIT Technological Contradictions
            The lens polisher problem
            The light-bulb filament problem
        Qualitative-Change Graphs vs Constituent-Contradiction Graphs
PART II      Example Problems
Key to example problems
Example 01: *The lunar and/or head lamp                     
Example 02: *The forty-ton press               
Example 03: The Butter-Patty Melting Problem        
Example 04: Solutions for the Ear Wax Problem           
Example 05:The Case Hardening Problem           
Example 06: The Vapor Cannister Problem                       
Example 07: The "Smart" Headlamp Problem           
Example 08: The Toast Detector Problem           
Software security
Experimental timer                            
The picture hanging kit                           
13.    Potpourri Wrap-Up                     
    1. The Industrial Experience
    2. The First SIT Lecture
    3. A First SIT Problem
    4. Does SIT Work?
    5. Introducing SIT Into a Corporation
    6. Motivation for this Book
    APPENDIX 1.    Principal Functions            
        A Door Hinge
        A Lead Pencil
    APPENDIX 2.   Two-Attribute-Function Associations        
                                Thermal Energy Content
                                Heat Flow
                                Gravitational Force
                                Potential Energy
                                Hall Effect
                                Thompson Effect



 (2) USIT Overview (eBook):

"Unified Structured Inventive Thinking - An Overview"  
(Ed Sickafus, 2001, 46 pages)

This Overview article was written by Ed Sickafus in Oct. 2001 and was posted in his USIT Web site in Feb. 2003 (delayed by a year and half, probably for his obtaining the permission from Ford Motor Co.) in the downloadable form only after registration without charge. 

I translated it, with the help by K. Kawamo and S. Koshimizu, into Japanese and posted the Japanese version publicly in "TRIZ Home Page in Japan" downloadable after registration without charge.


In this Memorial Archive, the English (as well as Japanese) version in PDF is downloadable, without charge, without registration. 

USIT Overview, eBook (in English)  (Feb.  , 2020)  

USIT Overview, eBook (in Japanese translation):  HTML page  , PDF   (Oct. 18, 2004)


Table of Contents   (USIT Overview)

Author biographical sketch
Flow Chart

Chapter I.   Introduction
                          Historical notes;  Content of this overview;  Acknowledgements; Span of USIT
Chapter II.   How to think about USIT
Chapter III.   Definitions
Chapter IV.   Thinking-Aid Models
                         O-A-F contact model;  Electronic feedback model;  Span of USIT
Chapter V.   USIT Flow Chart
Chapter VI.   Well-Defined USIT Problem
                         A well-defined problem exercise
Chapter VII.   Closed-World Method
                         Closed-world diagram ; O-A-F statements; Qualitative-change graph
Chapter VIII.   Particles Method
                          Morph cartoon ; And/or tree ; Creation/annihilation boilerplate
Chapter IX.   USIT Solution Techniques
                          Uniqueness; Dimensionality ; Pluralization; Distribution ;  Transduction;  Generification
Chapter X.   How to apply USIT
Chapter XI.   Conclusion

Appendix A.   Miscellaneous exercises
Appendix B.   Additional Resources
Appendix C.   USIT Textbook Order Form
Appendix D.   License Agreement



 (3) Book HSTP:

"Heuristics for Solving Technical Problems - Theory, Derivation, Application",
(Ed Sickafus, Ntelleck, 2004, 113 pages)

This is a new book written by Dr. Ed Sickafus in Nov. 2004.  I received the PDF file from him via email. 

He posted this book in the digital form publicly in his USIT site in 2004.
However, he did not highlight this book in his (rebuilt) USIT Web site in Jul. 2007.  I don't know why.


The English version in PDF, which I received in Nov. 2004, is now posted here publicly.  Downloadable, without charge without registration. 

HTSP Book (in English, PDF)  (Mar. 22 ,2020) 



Heuristics used by engineers and scientists in solving design-type problems are the non-algorithmic, empirical tricks, tools, and techniques learned academically and from experience. They do not solve problems. Instead they give pause to look at problems in different ways for new insights. An axiomatic basis consisting of six assumptions, inferred from the physical world of interacting objects, is used for a first-time derivation of heuristics. The derivation leads to a surprising number of heuristics.

As the axioms are couched in generic terms, independent of a particular field's argot, the resulting heuristics are also generic. Hence, a particular derived heuristic can be adapted to a specific field by wording it appropriately. This allows personalization of derived heuristics. Conversely, it provides a unified system for cataloging personal heuristics in a generic classification. These derived heuristics and their underlying strategies constitute a new problem-solving methodology. The resulting methodology presents problem solvers an attribute-centered methodology in contrast to conventional objectcentered methodologies.


Table of Contents  (HSTP Book)

Derivation of Heuristics in Three Parts

Part I – Use of Heuristics in Problem Solving

       Heuristics in Mathematics
       Definition of heuristics and intuition
       Examples of heuristics used by technologists in problem solving, Table 1.
       Heuristics seed the subconscious
       The use of heuristics in problem solving
       Unstructured brainstorming
       Structured, problem-solving methodologies
       Origin of heuristics
       A simple model of cognition
       Perspectives and biases in problem solving
       Abstraction of heuristics
       Comments on the method
The Method for Abstract Deduction of Heuristics
       Application of heuristics to a physical-world problem
              Problem-definition phase
              Problem-analysis phase
              Problem-solution phase
       Summary of heuristics used, Table 2.
       Abstract heuristics – no physical-world references
       Application of heuristics to an abstract problem
              Problem-definition phase
              Problem-analysis phase
              Problem-solution phase
       Summary of new graphic heuristics for an abstract problem, Table 3
       Abstract heuristics for abstract problems
       Graphic representation of heuristics
       Comments on the adaptation of derived heuristics to other fields.
              Information as an object
              Object abstraction
Note on Mathematical Heuristics
       Comparison of twelve mathematical heuristics with known and derived heuristics, Table 4
Conclusion of Part I

Part II – Derivation of Heuristics

Derivation of Heuristics
Known Heuristics
       Problem state
       Problem-state – to – Solution-state strategies
       Problem State graphic model
       Solution State graphic models
Characterization of attributes
       Analysis of solution states
       Solution by utilization
       Solution by A-F-A linking
       Solution by nullification
       Solution by elimination
       Graphic metaphors as solution heuristics
       Spatial and temporal heuristics
       Solution by transposition
       Paired spatial | temporal attributes, Table 3
       Summary of Heuristics for Problem Statement, Analysis, and Solution
       Phraseology in words and graphics
Conclusion of Part II

Part III – Demonstration of Derived Heuristics

Inventing a belt – a problem to be solved (using the newly derived heuristics)
Deduction of problem definition information
An unwanted effect as a strategy for invention
       Graphic problem statement
       Solution by utilization
       Solution by utilization using A-F-A linking
       Solution by nullification
       Solution by elimination
Conclusion of Part III


About the Author



 (4) "Heuristic Innovation" Textbook

"Heuristic Innovation – Engaging Both Brain Hemispheres In Rapidly Solving Technical Problems For Multiple Solution Concepts"
(Ed N. Sickafus, Ntelleck, LLC, 2006, 260 pages)    (www.u-sit.net)

Note (TN, Mar. 17, 2020): Dr. Sickafus published this book in the form of hard cover printed book, and sold together with the USIT Textbook at the sales price of 2 textboks for the former price of USIT Textbook. (in 2006).
In the new WordPress site (in 2015), the original English version of this textbook is downloadable without charge after registration. 
Hence this textbook is posted publicly here in this Memorial Archives.

HI Textbook in PDF (260 pages, 5.3 MB)   (Downloadable without charge)


Introduction to HI Textbook (Ed Sickafus, in www.u-sit.net, Jul. 2007)

For those who have attained confidence in the discipline of USIT, the textbook "Heuristic Innovation" brings new emphasis to its practice designed to streamline inventive thinking by stressing more the engagement of both brain hemispheres and less the use of structure. See (1) in Essays.
Mini-lectures in the "U-SIT and Think Newsletter" cover a wide range of USIT related topics mostly focusing on techniques for learning and applying USIT methodology to all manner of problems.

This "HI" textbook is an extension of USIT for greater speed and creativity by those who are practiced in the fundamentals of USIT. Basic definitions of USIT, their application, and ways of thinking about them are taken directly from USIT. The USIT practitioner who understands the structure of USIT is weaned from dependence on that structure in favor of more efficient practice that focuses almost entirely on problem definition, a la USIT. Flow-chart tedium is deprecated. The process uses no flow chart but instead iteratively develops the problem definition in ever deepening detail and understanding. Creativity is expressed through the practice of accomodating both brain hemispheres in developing problem definition and in finding solution concepts. Multiple heuristics are used in many ways. So important are these devices that a section is devoted to their generification and derivation from six fundamental axioms of problem solving.   



Table of Contents (of  "Heuristic Innovation" Textbook)

 Dedication   iii

Table of Contents v
Table of Examples     ix
To all problem solvers    xi
Preface       xv
Organization of heuristic innovation in three parts   xvii

Part A   Mental Problem Solving – How the Mind Solves Technical Problems   1

Goal of heuristic innovation  1
Procedure  2
Assumptions    2
Analogy of visual cues and problem-solving seeds   7
Using seeds   8
Solutions  11
Causes and effects in a well-defined problem  12
Plausible root-cause analysis  17
Forms of the proforma graphic 21
Focus on attribute → unwanted effect → attribute units     21
Orphan attributes  23
Questions having answers / Problems having solution concepts  23
Inventing problems  23
How do seeds work?  24
Generification of problem definition  27
Iteration in mental problem solving    29
Natural thinking in problem solving  30
The neural chemistry of problem solving  32
Brain lateralization          34
The struggle between intuition and logic     34
Resolving the struggle between intuition and logic  36
Brain divergence  37
Transition from structured to unstructured problem solving  38

Part B Application of heuristics     41

Preface       41
Origins   43
  Proof of efficacy  44
Introduction     45
  Structured problem solving from TRIZ to USIT      45
The model of heuristic innovation  48
Logical problem solving – a linear path   51
Problem definition – the heart of heuristic innovation  52
Engaging both hemispheres of cognition     55
Metaphors – thought starters     54
Awareness images     55
Metaphorical images     56
Hemispheres of cognition     57
Goal of studying cognitive-hemisphere modes of thinking  57
What our two cognitive hemispheres have to offer    58
When do we use both logical and intuitive thinking traits? 61
Ambiguous metaphors     63
Filters  64
Two objects – ultimate focus  66
Introduction of thought paths  67
Examples of thought paths found through attribute paring     68
Depth of understanding of an effect     74
Using thought paths     74
Attribute pairing in ambiguous effects     75
Thought paths fond through attribute triplets     80
Images in problem solving  82
A real-world problem     82
More on cognitive-hemisphere thinking traits  90
Heuristics    94
Strategy for heuristic innovation demonstration   94
Demonstration problem: the loose wire-harness connectors   96
Construction of a problem statement     96
Simple sketch     97
Discussion     99
Iteration of problem statement     100
Iteration of heuristics         103
Utilize an unwanted effect     103
Eliminate an unwanted effect     104
Nullify an unwanted effect     104
Challenge assumptions      105
Take objects to extremes     105
Take attributes to extremes     106
The transition from USIT to heuristic innovation     111
The USIT plausible root-cause heuristic     111
The heuristic-innovation transition     113
How to invent from an unwanted effect     114
Left behind?     118
In the end, it is problem analysis        118
Conclusion     120

Part C      Theory, Derivation, and Application of Heuristics     123

     Preface        123
     Overview      124

I. Theory for Derivation of Heuristics  125   

          Introduction            125
Heuristics in mathematics     125
Definition of heuristics and intuition     126
Table C1. Examples of heuristics used by technologists in problem solving  127
Heuristics seed the subconscious     127
The use of heuristics in problem solving     128
Unstructured brainstorming   129
          Background     130
Structured, problem-solving methodologies     130
Origin of heuristics     130
A simple model of cognition     130
Perspectives and biases in problem solving     131
Abstraction of heuristic      133
Comments on the method     133
  The Method for Derivation of Abstract Heuristics  135
     Application of heuristics to a physical-world problem   135
Problem-definition phase     135
Problem-analysis phase     137
Problem-solution phase     141
     Table C2. Summary of heuristics used     146
  Abstract heuristics – no physical-world references  147
     Application of heuristics to an abstract problem   148
Problem-definition phase     148
Problem-analysis phase     149
Problem-solution phase     149
     Table C3. Summary of new graphic heuristics for an abstract problem 155
     Abstract heuristics for abstract problems 155
     Graphic representation of heuristics 156
     Comments on the adaptation of derived heuristics to other fields    157
Object      159
Information as an object      159
Attribute      160
Function      160
Object abstraction     161
Note on Mathematical Heuristics 162
Table C4. Comparison of twelve mathematical heuristics with known and derived heuristics  162

II. Derivation of Heuristics     163

     Introduction     163
          Common rules / uncommon language 163
     Derivation     164
Definitions   164
Axioms      165
Known Heuristics   166
Abstraction 167
Problem state      167
Problem-state – to – Solution-state strategies     169
Problem State graphic model     170
Solution State graphic models     170
Characterization of Attributes     171
     Analysis of solution states with example solutions  174
Solution by utilization     174
Table C5.  Space-time attribute modifications for solution by utilization      175
Examples of solution by utilization     177
Solution by A-F-A linking     179
Solution by nullification      181
Solution by elimination        184
Graphic metaphors as solution heuristics     185
Table C6 Random two-attribute arrangements and their metaphorical implications.      186
Spatial and temporal heuristics     188
Solution by transposition 190
Table C7.  Paired spatial | temporal attributes     191
Table C8.  Summary of Heuristics for Problem Statement, Analysis and Solution 193
     Summary of heuristic strategies for problem solving     196
          Solution strategies     196
     Phraseology in words and graphics  198
     Conclusion of Derivation of Heuristics     199

III. Application of Derived Heuristics     201

     Introduction     1201
Inventing a belt – a problem to be solved using the newly derived heuristics    202
Deduction of problem definition information     202
An unwanted effect as a strategy for invention    203
Graphic problem statement  205
Solution by utilization    207
Solution by utilization using A-F-A linking  210
Solution by nullification      212
Solution by elimination   214
     Conclusion of Application of Derived Heuristics         216


A1. Infovores crave information    217
A2. For managers: Strategic partitioning of problem-solving resources  219
  Glossary     223
References     231
Exercises     233
Acknowledgements    237
About the Author   239
Index     241


Examples – Ideas, partial demonstrations, completed exercises, etc.

Complete problems:
     Erasure smudge        5, 8–17, 19,  23-29,
     Pin and balloon         49-55, 64-81
     Loose wire-harness   96-110
     Hand-held binoculars     135-145
Engineering scale-up:
     Audio speech compression 2
Graphic proforma:
     Trunk lid and airbag     3
     Erasure smudge        24, 25-26, 28
     Pin and balloon         70
     A law and a suspect   160
     Specimen and glass slide     166
     Rod and solid        168
     N2 and O2 (speed control)     177
     Polymer and location   182
     Belt and swabs          182
     Front wheel and rear wheel     183
     Cell and blood       183
     Belt and buckle          205, 207
     Belt: stress and creep     210, 211
Images and metaphors
     Laundry room leak     81-89
     Jigsaw puzzle     91
     Volume of a sphere     92
     Inventing an electric motor     92
     Computer mouse     115-117
     Men's trousers belt     202-215
Problem statements (well defined and not so well defined)"
     Pin and balloon         497, 51-53,
     Four saloons      61-62
     Two trains and a bumble bee    63
Solution by utilization:
     Nitrogen and oxygen    177
Solution using A-F-A links:
     Pedal and driver (speed control)   180
Solution by nullification:
     Polymer birefringence          182
     Conveyor belt and swabs     182
     Turn radius of a vehicle       183
     Pancreas cells in silicon holes  183
Solution by elimination:
     Car radio temptation         184
     Practice metaphors    6
     Sticky asphalt         39
     Flag pole invention 39
     Solution vs. concept   39
     Balloon sketch error 53
     Two trains and a bumble bee    63
     Reactions to Fig. B.3   64
     Ice cream         67
     Reactions to language      121
     Problem from one's own field   121
     Apples in a box              121
     E1– A fix-it problem        233
     E2 – Reverse engineering     233
     E3 – Attributes              233
     E4 – Generification of objects     233
     E5 – Points of contact         234
     E6 – Invention           234
     E7 – Well-defined problem     234
     E8 – Functions               234
     E9 – Object minimization     234
     E10 – Solution strategies     235
     E11 – Attribute pairing from lists of randomly selected attributes 235
     E12 – Attribute pairing in ambiguous effects    236
                       (More examples are found in Ref. 1)




(5) Brief USIT Tutorial: 

"A Brief Tutorial on Unified Structured Inventive Thinking"
(Ed Sickafus, ICSI  2014, Tutorial, 48 pages)

Original English Text is posted here in PDF. 



USIT is a simplified, structured problem solving (SPS) methodology. It is applicable in all fields of problem solving where problems can be defined in terms of objects, attributes, and functions. In its original phase of development, emphasis was focused on simplification of SPS methodologies such as TRIZ and related spin-offs. The logic of technology was the grail. In its second phase, emphasis has been expanded to suppress logic producing a broader solution space. USIT involves bimodal thinking using mental mechanics and mental strategies. Cognitive psychology research, in the past ten years, has discovered that during mental processing of information creative thinking precedes conscious logic. Once creative thinking is established as being illogical it becomes a bit too presumptive to seed the brain with logical clues – the common choice of SPS methodologies. Bimodel thinking in the second phase involves two levels, conscious and unconscious thinking. Using suppression of logic augments the scope of USIT, logic is not eliminated.

The goal of USIT is to seed the brain to employ all of its resources for generating new ideas. USIT operates within one's mental resources of training and personal experience. Paper and pencil are the only auxiliary tools that are needed. Both phases of USIT development are covered briefly. The first phase began in Ford Motor Company Research Laboratory in 1985, the second in Ntelleck in 2000


Table of Contents  (of Brief USIT Tutorial)


1. Introduction


2.1 Phase I Logical USIT Heuristics

Well-Defined Problem;  Point of Contact;  OAF Usage; Object-Object Diagram; Minimize Number of Objects; Plausible root cause(s); Cause-effect analysis; OAF statements; Information as an Object; Focus on one problem; Sketches; USIT flow chart; Solution Strategies;  That's It! A Brief Tutorial That Has Shown All Details of the Example Problems

2.2  Abbreviations

3.0   USIT Phase II

3.1 The Unconscious/Conscious Bilevel Model of the Brain
3.2 A New Model of Bilevel Thinking.
3.3 Concepts Seed New Concepts
3.4 Comments on access of images.
3.5 Where Logic Stands in Innovative Problem Solving.
3.6 USIT Phase II heuristics:
3.7 Comments on Pre-Engineering Solution Concepts
3.8 How Can We Know Our Unconscious is Solving Problems?

4.0 Addenda

4.1 Introductory Example of a Real-World Problem for those not Familiar with SPS

The Problem;



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  Last updated on May 25, 2020.   Access point:  Editor: nakagawa@ogu.ac.jp