TRIZ Papers :


"Theory of Resolving Differences"
A Collection of Papers Written by Toshio Takahara (2003-2007)
Annotated Bibliography: Toshio Takahara
Dec. 27, 2007
[Posted on Mar. 30, 2008]  Under the permission by the Author.   

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Editor's Note (Toru Nakagawa, Mar. 25, 2008)

This page contains a collection of papers written and published by Mr. Toshio Takahara on the topics related to TRIZ during the period from 2003 to 2007. This page has an annotated bibliography written by the author, Toshio Takahara, and has the links to the 14 papers posted separately in the PDF format. This is the first case for this site, "TRIZ Home Page in Japan", to post and record a series of all the papers written by an author.

I felt this necessary last October, and sent a request to the author last December. While I was writing the review "Personal Report of the Third TRIZ Symposium in Japan, 2007", I read Takahara's paper in English and was amazed with the significance of the theory and the clarity of the diagrammatic representations in the paper. I posted the Personal Report of the Symposium  on Nov. 18, and the full paper and slides of Takahara's presentation on Dec. 9, 2007. Only after four years since his first paper being published in the TRIZ Journal in 2003, I really understood his paper to some extent and the significance of his approach for the first time. I will quote here my email message I sent to Mr. Takahara on Dec. 13:

Dear Mr. Toshio Takahara
                                                       Toru Nakagawa, Osaka Gakuin Univ. Dec. 13, 2007

Thank you for your message.

I really found your paper interesting, which you presented at the Third TRIZ Symposium in Japan. Probably I should read, I suppose, the latter half of the paper more closely again to understand much more.

During the editorial work for posting your paper in the "TRIZ Home Page in Japan", I read again the Extended Abstract of your paper and found that your overview figure shows important points in a unified way.  Two months ago I was not able to understand its significance well, I have realized.

I was thinking to write to you in relation to what I had in mind during the editorial work: Could you please allow me to request you in the followings?

(1) Could you please allow me to publicly post all your works for these five years or so in my Web site "TRIZ Home Page in Japan" as they are, in the PDF format? I think we should avoid from losing them in future and it is not convenient for us to find them in different places. I wish to make a solid record of your theoretical work in "TRIZ Home Page in Japan", as a significant theory generated in Japan.

(2) In practice, I will make an HTML page in Japanese and make links to your papers in Japanese, and also an HTML page in English with the links to your papers in English. In these HTML pages I will write a short 'Editor's Note'.

(3) Mr. Takahara, would you please write a guide to your papers? Not so long an article, please. As an example, please see my article "Brief Guide to Nakagawa's TRIZ/USIT Articles" which I wrote in January 2003.

(4) If necessary, could you please get permissions to repost them from the relevant conference organizers? TRIZ Journal, in their old scheme, allows the authors to keep their copyrights and even in the present scheme they allow to repost the papers in any other place after one month from their publication. TRIZ Symposium in Japan allow the authors to keep their copyrights.

(5) Although you may have some unsatisfied points in your old papers, such feelings of unsatisfactory are common to most researchers, I think. Such unsatisfaction is the source of energy for generating further new papers. 
Rather, I think it important for us to be able to trace that some new ideas emerged and grew when and how in your works. We would like to have the full record of your theory development in my site "TRIZ Home Page in Japan". 
The Proceedings of TRIZ Symposium in Japan are possessed by 100 to 200 people only; thus the papers in them will easily lose their accessibility in a few years. "TRIZ Home Page in Japan" is going to try the best for keeping the publicity in the future. 

Thanks and hoping your cooperation.

These requests were accepted by Mr. Takahara willingly. Information Processing Society of Japan (IPSJ), who is the organizer of FIT (Forum of Information Technology in Japan), kindly gave me a permission of the posting on Dec. 19, 2007. Mr. Takahara sent me his Annotated Bibliography (of 8 pages) both in Japanese and in English and a set of files of his 14 papers, on Dec. 27, 2007. (I am posting these materials here with the delay of three months, because I chose, as the Editor of this site, to publish several other excellent papers presented at the TRIZ Symposium.)

By the way, the keyword "Resolving Differences" is probably coined by Mr. Takahara. The gap between the reality and what we want or what should be is called the 'Difference'. Recognition of such Differences and trials of resolving or eliminating them are the fundamentals in human activities. Such human activities take various forms and phases, including goal setting, problem recognition, designing, problem solving, etc. In this sense, "Resolving Differences" covers a wider scope than 'Solving problems' and 'Resolving Contradictions' in TRIZ. The 14 papers are trying to give a unified method of understanding and representing the whole process of Resolving Differences. Thus, to the collection of Takahara's 14 papers written from 2003 to 2007, I put the name of "Theory of Resolving Differences", under the permission by the author. 

The present page is consist of:

Editor's Note (by Toru Nakagawa) and a list of Takahara's papers (2003-2007) with links

"Annotated Bibliography of Takahara's Papers (2003-2007)" by Toshio Takahara (HTML page, with links)

Annotated Bibliography (PDF ) and 14 Papers in separate pages in PDF

Although I am posting the 14 papers, I have read only some of them yet, to my sorry for the author. But some people, including myself, will study these papers seriously, as a sort of classics. The Author, Mr. Toshio Takahara, bears the burden of creating/developing a new and solid theory, and some of the readers of this Web site will learn much of it and develop it further, I hope.

A List of Papers Written by Toshio Takahara (2003 - 2007) 
(In the order of publication) (single authored, always)

[Ref] Source_Topic_Year Title of the paper Source Language, pages, link
[1] TJ1_Area_2003 Application Area of Thinking Tool or Problem Solving Tool The TRIZ Journal, Jun. 2003. English 5p.
[2] FIT0_ASIT_2003 A Study on Thinking Tool or Problem Solving Tool K-068, FIT2003, Sept. 2003 English 3p.
[3] TJ2_Object_2003 How People Interact with Objects using TRIZ and ASIT The TRIZ Journal, Aug. 2003 English 13p.
[4] TJ3_ASIT_2003 Logical Enhancement of ASIT The TRIZ Journal, Sept. 2003 English 10p.
[5] TJ4_Function_2003 How Function is Realized in Problem Solving The TRIZ Journal, Nov. 2003 English 12p.
[6] FIT1_Object_2004 Reconsidering Object FIT2004, K-053, 2004.09. Japanese 4p.
[7] FIT2_Object_2005 Reconsidering Object 2 The Minimal Object Set for Real World FIT2005, K-084, 2005.09. Japanese 4p.
[8] FIT3_Object_2005 Reconsidering Object 3 Viewpoint and Granularity FIT2005, K-085, 2005.09. Japanese 4p.
[9] TS1_Object_2005 How to Adapt Reconsidered Object to TRIZ, USIT and ASIT First TRIZ Symposium in Japan, 2005.09.01-03 Japanese 6p. , Slides 20p.
English slides 20p.
[10] TS2_ResolveDifference_2006 A Method of Resolving Differences Based on the Concepts of Function and Process Object――Or a Comment on “Hierarchical TRIZ Algorithms" ―― Second TRIZ Symposium in Japan, 2006.08.31-09.02 Japanese 10p. ,Slides 20p.
English Slides 19p.
[11] FIT4_Figure_2006 How to Express a Structured Object World ― Reconsidering Object 4 ― FIT2006, K-093, 2006.09. Japanese 4p.
[12] FIT5_ResolveDifference_2006 A Method to Change Object World ― Reconsidering Object 5 ― FIT2006, K-094, 2006.09. Japanese 4p.
[13] FIT6_ChangeObject_2007 The Principles of Handling Process Object in the Method of Resolving Differences ― Reconsidering Object 6 FIT2007, D-015, 2006.09. English 4p.
[14] TS3_ResolveDifference_2007 A Method of Resolving Differences Based on the Concepts of Functions and Process Objects: Part 2 Third TRIZ Symposium in Japan, 2007.08.30-09.01 Japanese HP , Japanese 8p. ,Japanese Slides 20p.
English HP  , English 16p. ,English Slides 20p.

 

Top of this page List of Papers Annotated Bibliography (Takahara) [14] Takahara's paper HP page, Japan TRIZ Symposium 2007 Japanese page

[1] Annotated Bibliography

"Theory of Resolving Differences"
A Collection of Papers Written by Toshio Takahara (2003-2007)

Toshio Takahara
   Dec. 27, 2007

 

1.The position of the papers

The central part of figure show the structure of Resolving Differences which consists of problem solving, making new function and idealization based on the concepts of “function” and “process object”. Around the central part is the short name of my papers.


Figure: Themes of Takahara's Paper in FIT, TRIZ Symposium and TRIZ Journal

Elements of structure of made method are;

1. Basic elements (Object, Object Change, Object World) and common concepts (Attributes of Object, Granularity, Function)
2. Method of Resolving Differences
3. Applied area

Elements of structure in use mode are;

4. Using person
5. Process of learning and using

2.Bibliography

The TRIZ Symposium in Japan

I intend to build the ideal formal theory of recognizing and changing world using TRIZ at the TRIZ Symposium in Japan. I don’t intend to touch existing contents of TRIZ in the area of problem solving or idealizing system which is useful as it is. But I believe it would be more useful if it expanded to deal with Process Object explicitly and combined with this method. The basic principles of handling Process Object will become the base of the method of “Resolving Differences” which include recognition and operation of the real world including usual problem solving, idealizing system and making new system.

These are also necessary to expand TRIZ to so-called “non technical” area without using logic of analogy as usual.

For those who do not agree with these articles I strongly recommend first to expand the possibility of recognizing and changing System Object and Process Object explicitly. Secondly if you want a smaller parameter value, please note that eliminating the Process Object which has the parameter in question is also a candidate for the purpose every time.

[9] TS1_Object_2005   (Short name in the figure)
Takahara Toshio: "How to Adapt Reconsidered Object to TRIZ, USIT and ASIT",
(6 pages in Japanese, 20 pages in English slides )

1. I made clear the requirements of the ideal formal theory; the requirement for object, operation of object, applied area and using people. (This is my starting point to build the ideal formal theory of recognizing and changing world.)

2. I grasp object as something to be recognized including something to be recognized and operated which is of practical use. Important thing is something I can change. But it is difficult to discriminate what I can change it or not in advance. And something to be recognized includes something to be changed. And also it is easy to specify what I recognize.
Object consists of system objects which express material being, contents of idea that are born by physical entity and process objects which express processes of movement.
How to express objects and their behavior are shown.

3. I consider the way to adapt the reconsidered object to TRIZ, USIT and ASIT.

[10] TS2_ResolveDifference_2006
Takahara Toshio: "A Method of Resolving Differences Based on the Concepts of Function and Process Object――Or a Comment on “Hierarchical TRIZ Algorithms" ――",
(10 pages in Japanese 19 pages in English slides )

1. I reconsider the law of dialectics. Then I studied the structure of movement. What causes movement and what is a result of movement make clear the structure of movement. On this basis I made the table of object operation which showed the relation between purpose and object operation.

2. I explained the types of differences and the types of means of solution as the element of Resolving Differences. I explained the types of Resolving Differences as a whole and classify the existing TRIZ.

3. I took a famous TRIZ example of acid attack problem from Larry Ball’s “Hierarchical TRIZ Algorithms" to explain my method and concepts including process object and function. Also I made some comments on his book.

[14] TS3_ResolveDifference_2007
Takahara Toshio: "A Method of Resolving Differences Based on the Concepts of Functions and Process Objects: Part 2"
(16 pages , 19 pages in slides )

As this is the first paper written in English in TRIZ Symposium in Japan, I add the summary of the previous paper as a preparation of discussion including how to grasp object and function and how to express cause effect diagram. And I also add a part of previous paper so I took a famous TRIZ example of acid attack problem from Larry Ball’s “Hierarchical TRIZ Algorithms" to explain my method and concepts including process object and function. Also I made some comments on his book.

This article improves the framework of the method of Resolving Differences which consists of problem solving, making new function and idealization based on the concepts of “function” and “process object”.

1. We can not touch process object directly. This article shows the “principle P” dealing with process object. There are three principles of transforming object including the “principle P” and two types of operating object by person. (I showed only conclusion of them in the paper.) We obtain the figure and the table of “Operation and transformation of object” by combining two types of operating object and three principles of transforming object in processes of real world. This figure and table express every possibility of one to one relation which is relation between operated object as input and target as output.

2. Three types of Resolving Differences have a unified input-output relation. We resolve differences in the following way. We set the purpose in terms of Object as an output. Then we find out input of object to get this purpose of object for every kind of logical types of changing Objects using the figure or the table of “Operation and transformation of Object”.

Among three types of Resolving Differences, idealization has many issues to be investigated. I studied some of them.

FIT (Forum on Information Technology in Japan)

FIT is the forum held every year since 2002 by Information Processing Society of Japan (IPSJ) and the Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers (IEICE).

[2] FIT0_ASIT_2003
Takahara Toshio: “A Study on Thinking Tool or Problem Solving Tool”
(3 pages )

I took a brief outlook of “process object” and “structure and function” and proposed the outline of “THE TOOL” (later called “Enhanced ASIT”) which was a framework of thinking tools or problem solving tools.

[6] FIT1_Object_2004
Takahara Toshio: “Reconsidering Object”
(4 pages in Japanese )

1. I made the first definition of object that is something which interacts with other thing expanding the concept of being by I. Kant and K. Marx. Something to be recognized and operated by me is the object in this sense. There exists a being (matter or idea) which I can recognize and operate. And there exists a movement which I can recognize and operate. These being and movement are called system object and process object respectively.

2. I investigated concept of attributes and function.

[7] FIT2_Object_2005
Takahara Toshio: “Reconsidering Object 2-The Minimal Object Set for Real World-”
(4 pages in Japanese)

1. I grasp object as something to be recognized (third definition) including something to be recognized and operated (second definition) which is of practical use. Important thing is something I can change. But it is difficult to discriminate what I can change it or not in advance. And something to be recognized includes something to be changed. And also it is easy to specify what I recognize. Object consists of system objects which express material being, contents of idea that are born by physical entity and process objects which express processes of movement.
2. We can express object world by objects, their relation in space and their relation in time. I make the rule of expressing figures. (More extended detail is in [11] FIT4_Figure_2006)

[8] FIT3_Object_2005
Takahara Toshio: “Reconsidering Object 3-Viewpoint and Granularity-”
(4 pages in Japanese )

1. Viewpoint and granularity of object are discussed.
2. Relations between objects can be seen as causal relation or mutual relation according to set granularity.
3. We must have a viewpoint to tell whether the object world is true or false, verify reliability or evaluate function. We should seek a means to have these jobs accomplished.

[11] FIT4_Figure_2006
Takahara Toshio: “How to Express a Structured Object World-Reconsidering Object 4-”
(4 pages in Japanese )

We can express object world by objects, their relation in space and their relation in time. Movements form relations between objects in time. What causes movement and what is a result of movement make clear the structure of movement.
Movements change attributes of object, qualitatively change object, delete object or generate object.

I make the rule of expressing figures of object world in each case. A part of expressing figures of object world is shown in [14] TS3_ResolveDifference_2007.

[12] FIT5_ResolveDifference_2006
Takahara Toshio: “A Method to Change Object World -Reconsidering Object 5-”
(4 pages in Japanese )

1. I reconsider object and the law of dialectics. Then I studied the structure of movement. What causes movement and what is a result of movement make clear the structure of movement. On this basis I made the table of object operation which showed the relation between purpose and object operation.

2. I explained the types of differences and the types of means of solution as the element of Resolving Differences. I explained the types of Resolving Differences as a whole and classify the existing TRIZ.
(Details are in [10] TS2_ResolveDifference_2006)

[13] FIT6_ChangeObject_2007
Takahara Toshio: “The Principles of Handling Process Object in the Method of Resolving Differences ― Reconsidering Object 6”
(4 pages )

Practically one of the reasons Process Object has not been treated explicitly so far is that we don’t grasp the way how to deal with it. This paper shows the outline of dealing with changing Object including Process Object. Three principles of transforming object and two types of operating object by person form the principles to change object physically.
Before changing Object physically we must decide logical contents of changing Object which is a result of recognizing differences to be resolved depending on the situation as the functional purpose.
(Details are in [14] TS3_ResolveDifference_2007)

TRIZ Journal

[1] TJ1_Area_2003
Takahara Toshio: “Application Area of Thinking Tool or Problem Solving Tool”
(5 pages )

Among other creatures human being is characterized as having the indirect way of recognition and operation via medium. Until now we have had the vast accumulated indirect media consisting of ‘‘technology’’ born by the technical means and ‘‘institution’’ born by common concept.
We must think ‘‘object’’ is everything to be selected and decided to solve a problem or to design something. We can grasp that ‘‘object’’ is not only ‘‘system object’’ consisting of the element of technical system or institutional system but also ‘‘process object’’ consisting of the element of process of system action or human action.
We have technical area, institutional area and personal area to which thinking tool or problem solving tool can apply.

[3] TJ2_Object_2003
Takahara Toshio: “How People Interact with Objects using TRIZ and ASIT”
(13 pages )

I discuss the role of “process object” and “system object” which are the key concepts connecting life with problem solving tools.
I examined ASIT to find ASIT has the great ability to deal explicitly with “process object”.
Afterwards, related examinations of “the 40 principles” of TRIZ and their relations with ASIT were also given.

[4] TJ3_ASIT_2003
Takahara Toshio: “Logical Enhancement of ASIT”
(10 pages )

I gave the outline of “structure/function/attribute”. And I reconsidered the problem solving tools from the viewpoint of “system/process object” and “structure/function/attribute”.
On this basis I drew the outline of a tentative framework of “Enhancement of ASIT”. I enhanced ASIT adding three tools to obtain more logical structure maintaining the Closed World condition.
Afterwards related examination on the relations between “the 40 principles” of TRIZ and ASIT and Enhancement of ASIT was also given.

[5] TJ4_Function_2003
Takahara Toshio: “How Function is Realized in Problem Solving”
(12 pages )

I made clear the way how function is achieved in the real world with examples to find out several types of function realization in problem solving. The correspondence between ASIT and several types of function realization was shown.

3.References

The TRIZ Symposium in Japan

[9] TS1_Object_2005 (Short name in the figure)

Takahara Toshio: "How to Adapt Reconsidered Object to TRIZ, USIT and ASIT",
The First TRIZ Symposium in Japan. 2005.09.01-03
(6 pages in Japanese, 20 pages in English slides )

[10] TS2_ResolveDifference_2006

Takahara Toshio: "A Method of Resolving Differences Based on the Concepts of Function and Process Object――Or a Comment on “Hierarchical TRIZ Algorithms" ――",
The Second TRIZ Symposium in Japan. 2006.08.31-09.02.
(10 pages in Japanese 19 pages in English slides )

[14] TS3_ResolveDifference_2007

Takahara Toshio: "A Method of Resolving Differences Based on the Concepts of Functions and Process Objects: Part 2"
The third TRIZ Symposium in Japan. 2007.08.30-09.01.
(16 pages , 19 pages in slides )

FIT(Forum on Information Technology in Japan)

[2] FIT0_ASIT_2003

Takahara Toshio: “A Study on Thinking Tool or Problem Solving Tool”, K-068, FIT2003, Sept.2003.
(3 pages )

[6] FIT1_Object_2004

Takahara Toshio: “Reconsidering Object”, FIT2004, K-053, 2004.09.
(4 pages in Japanese )

[7] FIT2_Object_2005

Takahara Toshio: “Reconsidering Object 2-The Minimal Object Set for Real World-”, FIT2005, K-084, 2005.09.
(4 pages in Japanese)

[8] FIT3_Object_2005

Takahara Toshio: “Reconsidering Object 3-Viewpoint and Granularity-”, FIT2005, K-085, 2005.09.
(4 pages in Japanese )

[11] FIT4_Figure_2006

Takahara Toshio: “How to Express a Structured Object World-Reconsidering Object 4-”, FIT2006, K-093, 2006.09.
(4 pages in Japanese )

[12] FIT5_ResolveDifference_2006

Takahara Toshio: “A Method to Change Object World -Reconsidering Object 5-”, FIT2006, K-094, 2006.09.
(4 pages in Japanese )

[13] FIT6_ChangeObject_2007

Takahara Toshio: “The Principles of Handling Process Object in the Method of Resolving Differences ― Reconsidering Object 6”, FIT2007, D-015, 2006.09.
(4 pages )

TRIZ Journal

[1] TJ1_Area_2003

Takahara Toshio: “Application Area of Thinking Tool or Problem Solving Tool”, The TRIZ journal, Jun.2003.
http://www.triz-journal.com/archives/2003/06/e/05.pdf
(5 pages )

[3] TJ2_Object_2003

Takahara Toshio: “How People Interact with Objects using TRIZ and ASIT”, The TRIZ journal, Aug.2003.
http://www.triz-journal.com/archives/2003/08/d/04.pdf
(13 pages )

[4] TJ3_ASIT_2003

Takahara Toshio: “Logical Enhancement of ASIT”, The TRIZ journal, Sept.2003.
http://www.triz-journal.com/archives/2003/09/e/05.pdf
(10 pages )

[5] TJ4_Function_2003

Takahara Toshio: “How Function is Realized in Problem Solving”, The TRIZ journal, Nov.2003.
http://www.triz-journal.com/archives/2003/11/b/02.pdf
(12 pages )

 

Top of this page List of Papers Annotated Bibliography (Takahara) [14] Takahara's paper HP page, Japan TRIZ Symposium 2007 Japanese page

 

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Last updated on Mar. 30, 2008.     Access point:  Editor: nakagawa@ogu.ac.jp